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Concept of Job Analysis - Meaning & its Definition
Job analysis is one of the important terms in human resource. It is a way to determine the nature of the job and the duties employee has to perform. It also provides information about what kind of people should be hired for a particular job profile. It is a systematic way to collect information and make judgment about all the things related to a job. The process of job analysis is to prepare a document which contains all the job specification and descriptions related to the work performed.
Different authors have given variety of definitions of job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic process of reporting information, securing it and defining a particular job this is a definition given by C. Harold and William E Kendall. Whereas Dale Yoder defined job analysis as a bunch of duties task and job responsibilities which are assigned to an individual which are different from other job profile.
According to another popular author Blum it is accurate study of various components of jobs, it is not only related with the analysis of duty and condition of work but also it provides information about individual qualification of the employee. To summarize job analysis is a process of collecting information which is related to job. Also information related to a person who is supposed to perform this job it includes education skill and training required for the employee and duties responsibilities of the employee.
What is Job Analysis in HRM?
When any employee joins the organization it is imperative on the part of the employee to have information about the job assigned to him or her. Every job is different in terms of responsibility, difficulties, skills and knowledge required to perform the job. The job analysis provides clarity about different components of the job and the circumstances in which the job should be performed. It is a study and collection of information related to the operation and responsibility associated with the job there are three important components of job analysis, job description and job specification followed by job evaluation. All this process is help to identify the requirement of job and describe the suitability of a person who is supposed to perform the job. Information of job analysis is used in order to prepare job description and specification. It is also utilized to design organization structure, proper recruitment device and selection method along with compensation offered for the job. Further the performance appraisal, training and development facilities, career path counseling and health related conditions are also determined based on the job analysis.
Depiction of Job Description and Job Specification
The depiction of job description and job specification consist of three aspects namely definition, purpose/usages and content.
Job description refers to narration of activities and duties to be performed by the employee. It also describes the relationship between job and other job profiles, the tools or equipment which the employee will use to perform the job, working condition, supervision specification and hazards related to the job. It is important the HR experts make the job description comprehensive and clear. It is essential that an employee understands what job he/she has to do? How it should be performed and what are its consequences.
The focus of job description is job itself, while the job specification is linked to the person who is going to execute the job. The job specification describes the level of qualification, abilities, skills, judgment, experience and other attributes which are required to perform the job. It is the well noted acceptable level of abilities which the job holder must have in order to execute the job properly. It also consist of the personal, physical, social, behavioral and psychological characteristics of the job holders.
- Purposes/ Usages
The usages or purpose of the job description and job specification are different. Here you can find various functions these statement are performing in the organization.
Grading and classification of jobs
Developing work standards
Placement and Orientation of newcomers
Counseling of employees
Promotions and transfers
Outlining for career path
Delimitation of authority
Hiring, Training and development and Performance appraisal
Job evaluation and compensation
Health and safety
Work scheduling and Employee discipline
The content of job description and job specification are the points which each of these statements should include. It is the information about the job which is provided by these statements.
Machines, tools, materials, equipment
Working condition and hazards
Location of job
Qualification of employee
Experience, training undergone, judgment
Physical efforts and skills
Judgment and initiative
Emotional characteristics and medical history
Once the job description and job specification is well spelled out it is essential to arrange the jobs in a hierarchical order. Job evaluation is carried out to grade different jobs and develop a suitable pay structure for them. It also defines the relationships between different jobs along with their ranking and ratings.
How to Conduct a Job analysis?
The answer to how to conduct a job analysis is not an easy one. There are various aspects which are involved while HR department conducts the job analysis. Here the six important aspects which has to utilized while conducting job analysis-
- Source of data-
The source of data is the person or agency which provides information about the ground reality of the job. It includes the job analyst, employees who have experience in performing such job and supervisors who can convey the need of job.
- Method of collecting data-
It is difficult to collect all the information about the job without using any tools. Thus one should conduct interviews of employees and supervisors; questionnaire can be distributed to get exact information about the job. Other information gathering methods includes the records of organization and observation by the agents or managers.
- Job data-
The collected job data should include information related to job such as tasks, performance, standards, responsibilities, knowledge required, skills required, experience needed, job context, equipment used and duties of job holder.
- Job specification-
The job data is then divided into job specification which includes skill requirement, physical demands, knowledge requirement, and abilities needed
- Job description-
The job description is collection of information about tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job holder.
- Functions of HR department-
Once the job description and specification is properly defined the information is used to carry out different HR functions such as recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation management.
Job Analysis Process & Steps
Job analysis is a very useful tool from the HR point of view, but it is difficult to execute. It involves five steps which have to be followed for favorable end result. The steps are represented in the figure given below-
- Organizational Job Analysis:
The pertinent information regarding the job is obtained at organizational level. It is critical to know what is the performance level organization is looking forward from the job holder and the contribution of the job in the goal attainment of organization. The job related information is then used to create an organizational chart. It consists of different job classes, flow charts, flow of job activities and sharing points of different job profiles.
- Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis:
It is important to understand that analysis of jobs of organization is bit time consuming and costly affair. Thus, only some sample jobs are selected in order to carry out the detailed job analysis.
- Collection of Data for Job Analysis:
The information related to different features of job and the abilities required to execute the job is collected from the organization. The job analysis tools such as observation, interviews, and questionnaire are used for the collection of data.
- Preparing Job Description:
Based on the collected data the HR team prepares job description by defining the tasks, duties and responsibilities which are discharged for the effective performance.
- Preparing Job Specification:
The job specification is prepared which consist of the personal traits, skills, qualities and qualification which are required to perform the job properly.
Job Analysis Methods & Techniques
Organizations have several methods and techniques to conduct the job analysis. Although the process of job analysis remains same, the methods used to collect the data differ from organization to organization. Here are some authentic methods to collect the data which is further used for job analysis-
- Personal observation
In this method an observer is appointed by the organization to keep a watch on the individuals which performing the job. The observer then creates extensive list of task performed and the qualities of the individual which are utilized which executing the task. This method is useful but it does not work under certain condition. The task executed might be different every day and thus it is difficult to draw a conclusion based on few days of personal observation.
- Actual execution of the job
The job analyzer can actually perform the job to get information about the skill requirement, difficulty while performing the job and efforts required to finish the given task.
- Interview method
The information is collected about the job with the help of interviews of employees and their supervisors. The questions related to the skill level required, the task, the preparations needed to perform the job are asked during the interview. Although it is a time consuming technique it works well to gather information about the job. However many time both employee and supervisor forgets to mention certain aspects of the job. Many times the job responsibilities are exaggerated and thus make it difficult to define the job description and specification.
- Questionnaires method
This is one of the least costly methods which can be used to collect data for job analysis. A well-designed and easy to understand questionnaires can be very useful to collect information regarding job in a short period of time. Multiple choice questions as well as open ended questions can be designed to understand the views of employees towards their job. The only drawback of this method is more number of incomplete forms and inaccurate information given by the employees about their job profile can lead into failure of job analysis.
- Log records and HR records
The log record book created by the employee about their daily activities in the office is very useful type of job data. The records are extensive in nature and thus provide fair idea regarding the responsibilities and duties linked to the job. In a similar way the HR record can also be used as job data. It has information regarding the core competency of the employees, their experience history and promotions received. It also has employee’s personal information such as educational qualification, previous job profile and job title and the year of experience.
- Computerized Job Analysis
With the help of information communication technology, computerized job analysis systems are developed by researchers. Specificity of data is a significant attribute of computerized job Analysis. Job analysis database is created by compiling all the specific data together. It takes less effort and time to write job descriptions using computerized job analysis system. The job descriptions created using this method are quite accurate and linked with compensation system.
Apart from these methods few companies also use critical incident method in which the employee list out their experiences of critical incidents which performing the job. Combination methods are also used sometimes to get quick and accurate results.
Purpose or Objectives of Job Analysis
The purpose of job analysis is to do a detailed examination of employee job role, the working conditions of employees and the abilities and skill required to perform the job. The objectives of job analysis with respective HR activities is listed below-
- To determine efficient and effective method to execute a job
- To improve job satisfaction of employees
- To identify the needs of training and the core areas on which training should be given
- To develop a performance measurement system
- To match specification of employees with the job role they are offered during selection process.
- To provide standardized way to calculate the job compensation.
- To avoid ambiguity regarding the job duties and responsibilities of employee.
Benefits and Importance of Job Analysis
All most all the HR activities have greater use of job analysis. Here are some benefits and importance of job analysis from HR point of view-
- Human Resource Planning:
Job analysis provides information such as how many employees which specific skill set is required to perform the job. This information is very necessary for human resource planning.
- Recruitment and Selection:
A right person for right job is the objective of recruitment system. The job analysis provides information about the behavioral and personal attributes of the employees which can be utilized to make hiring process more effective.
- Training and Development:
The information regarding the skills and knowledge required to perform a job is gathered through job analysis. Thus, based on job analysis organization can design relevant and appropriate training and development program for employees.
- Placement and Orientation:
When HR department links the skill set of employees, with the job to be assigned it gets easier to make placement decision. The skill set required for a particular job is acquired through job analysis. It also provides information regarding the orientation required for new employee in order to perform well in the assigned job.
- Job Evaluation:
The relative worth of a job and the appropriate salary structure of the job is determine in the job evaluation with the help of information provided by job analysis.
- Performance Appraisal:
The job standards are established using job analysis. These job standards are utilize to rank the employees based on their performance and further carry out the performance appraisal process.
- Personnel Information:
All the records of as Human Resource Information System (HRIS) are boasted using job analysis. It helps to improve the efficiency of administration and supports the decision making system of the organization.
- Health and Safety:
Lastly the information regarding the working condition of a job is provided by job analysis. This information is used to create a safe and healthy work environment for the employees.
Job Analysis Questionnaire
The sample job analysis questionnaire includes questions related to qualifications, work experience, skills and knowledge level of employees.
As mentioned above, employees have to fill up this information for job analysis. Another type of questions is yes/no questions. Here is sample of these questions-
Do you think this job needneeds supervision?
Does this job required high computer skills?
Some open ended questions are also included such as-
Discuss the work conditions
What is your opinion on the difficulty level of this job?
Job Analysis Tools
Job analysis is very complicated process and thus HR managers have to take help of different tools to for analysis. Here is a list of job analysis tools which can be used to get accurate end results-
- O*Net Model
It helps to simultaneously list the job related data of different jobs. This tool is very useful in collecting the initial data of employees such as education qualification, mental and emotional state, and physical requirements. It also directly links job analysis with compensation and benefits of the prospective candidate for a particular job.
- FJA Model:
The model stands for Functional Job Analysis. This tool is useful in determining the complex responsibilities and duties of the employee. It is based on work oriented approach and provides scores to the jobs stating their work complexity.
- PAQ Model:
This is Position Analysis Questionnaire. Here the questionnaires are filled by supervisor and the employee. It is designed by trained and experienced job analyst.
- Competency Model:
This model consists of skills, abilities, knowledge, behavior, performance and expertise of employee. It is very helpful to understand the prospective candidate at the time of entry and provide a particular designation to the employee. It also has basic elements regarding qualification, education, training, experience certificate, legal requirements and willingness of candidate
- Job Scan:
This technique works on personality dynamics. It is a ideal job model suggested which does not discuss the individual competencies however it provides a protocol required performer specific job.
Job Analysis Sample for Example
Job analysis can be carried out using two different approaches namely work oriented and employee oriented approach. Here is an example of job analysis using both approaches for a profile of HR manager.
- Work oriented approach
Regional HR Manager
The list of responsibilities are as follows-
1. To determine the employee requirement and work on the hiring process
2.To design and execute the training and development program
3. To conduct the orientation program for newly joined employees
4. To gather information regarding performance of the employees and complete the process of performance appraisal.
5. To maintain healthy working conditions for the employees.
6. To arrange the career counseling and planning for the employees.
7. Conduct exit interviews
- Employee oriented approach
Regional HR Manager
MBA in Human Resources from reputed institute
5-6 years of experience in HR
Not more than 40 years
Skill set and knowledge
1. Should be able to successfully handle the entire hiring process
2. knowledge about tools and software used for performance appraisal
3. Excellent communication skill
4. High computer skills.
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