Employee Training and Development helps in updating employees’ skills and knowledge for performing a Job which at the end results in increasing their work efficiency and increase the productivity of an organization. It ensures that Employees oddness or eccentricity is reduced and learning or behavioral change should take place in a very structured format. Training development or learning and development are official ongoing educational activities designed for goal fulfillment and enhance the performance of employees.
The activities linked with employee Training & Development is created to convey the employee to perform better in assigned job which also motivate employee to give his/her best so that at the time of performance appraisal, employee can show the eligibility for promotion and salary increment. It refers as the skill and knowledge enhancing bustle which is a source of additional information as well as instruction required to improve the quality of performance. HR Training and Development are two different activities which goes hand-in-hand for the overall betterment of the employee. The short term and reactive process is training which is used for operational purpose while the long term process of development is for executive purpose. The aim of training in HRM is to improvement of required skills in the employee whereas aim of development is to improve overall personality of the employee. Management takes the initiative of training to fill up the skill gap in the organization; the development initiative is generally taken with the objective of future succession planning.
Employee Training and Development in HRM is defined as a system used by an organization to improve the skills and performance of the employees. It is an educational tool which consists of information and instructions to make existing skills sharp, introduce new concepts and knowledge to improve the employee performance. An effective training & development initiative based on training needs analysis helps the company to enhance the skills of working manpower and improve productivity.
A program of upgrading of employee’s skills, knowledge and competencies is known as training. The job related training is often provided to the employee to ensure they can well perform on the assigned tasks and contribute to the success of the organization. The development program on the other hand is often preparation to perform the future job. Human Resource Training Development provides a learning opportunity to the employee to increase their work capacities and get ready for the future challenges.
Training and development in HRM are two different activities which goes hand-in-hand for the overall betterment of the employee. The short term and reactive process is training which is used for operational purpose while the long term process of development is for executive purpose. The aim of training & development is improvement of required skills in the employee whereas aim of development is to improve overall personality of the employee. Management takes the initiative to choose right training methods to fill up the skill gap in the organization; the development initiative is generally taken with the objective of future succession planning.
Here below are the definitions given by the expert and eminent authors:
Armstrong "Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. Development is improving individual performance in their present Roles and preparing them for greater responsibilities in the future”.
Katz & Kahn "Training and development is described as a maintenance subsystem, intended to improve organizational efficiency by increasing routinization and predictability of behavior”.
Kllatt, Murdick & Schuster “Training is a systematic way of altering behavior to prepare an employee for a job or to improve the employee’s performance on the present job, and development is preparing an employee for improving the conceptual, decision-making, and interpersonal skills in complex, in structured situation”
Lussier “Training is a process of acquiring the skills necessary to perform a job and development is the ability to perform both present and future jobs”.
McLagan “Training and development focuses on identifying, assuring and helping develop, through planned learning, the key competencies that enable individuals to perform current or future jobs”.
Kirkpatrick “Training refers to the teaching of specific knowledge and skills required on the individual’s present job. The term development refers to the growth of the individual and preparations for higher-level jobs”.
Kleiman "Training and development are planned learning experiences that teach workers how to perform their current or future jobs effectively."
Sugar “Training is defined as an instruction geared towards developing a specific group of skills or tasks”
Smith “Training is a planned process to modify attitude knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or a range of activities”
Fuller & Farrington “Training is designed to increase the skills and knowledge of people.”
Training and development is always identified as one of the vital Human Resource functions. In most of the organizations training and development is an integral part of the HRD (human resource development) activity. Among the cut-throat competition in the corporate world where skilled manpower is important aspect to gain competitive advantage, training & development acts as a tool for success of organization. As rapid changes in technology are deskilling the employees very quickly, many organizations have fixed certain amount of training hours per year for their employees.
The HRD department is focused towards the improvement of the manpower of the organization. The training and development activities are often used to motivate employees and improve their organizational commitment. The HR department has found out that employee really appreciate that they have given an opportunity to build new skills and improve their job performance. Employee feels that organization is totally commitment towards the growth of their manpower and thus they like to be a part of training and development activities. The training development activities are also used to attract new talent towards the organization by publicizing the HRD efforts.
From the HR perspective, training and development activities are best way to create talent pool in the organization. Instead of hiring staff which is skilled and trained for a particular job profile, training and development activities running in the organization is much cheaper source of internal skilled employees. It reduces the recruitment or hiring cost of the organization and due to internal hiring for particular position the employee joining on new post is already aware of the organizational work culture. HRD department also promotes HR training and development activities as the homegrown executives are found to perform better than skilled people hired from outside.
In the dynamic work environment it is important for companies to improve the skill of their manpower. It is critical for employees to learn new things and enhance their skills to meet the work competitions in the business environment. Thus, the training and development programs run by the company is beneficial for both organization and employee.
Find below few important types of training in HRM: