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Employee Engagement

Employee engagement refers to the level of commitment, passion, and motivation that employees have towards their work and their organization. It involves the degree to which employees feel connected to their company's mission, values, and goals, and are willing to go above and beyond to contribute to its success.

Engaged employees are generally more productive, have higher job satisfaction, and are less likely to leave their job. They are also more likely to promote their organization and its products or services to others, which can positively impact the company's reputation and bottom line.

Table of content

What is Employee Engagement

Employee engagement in HR is the emotional investment employees make in an organization. They use their work-related passion, engagement and motivation as the framework for their work. Engaged employees clearly identify the organizational goals and try to achieve them.

The concept of employee engagement in Human Resource was proposed by Dr. William Kahn in 1990. He suggested that there are three degrees of engagement for employees in their work: physical, cognitive and emotional.

There are three types of employees:

  • Engaged employees

  • Disengaged employees

  •  Actively disengaged employees

Employee engagement can be influenced by a variety of factors, including job satisfaction, employee recognition and appreciation, opportunities for professional growth and development, work-life balance, and the overall workplace culture. Organizations that prioritize employee engagement tend to have a more positive work environment and see higher levels of success and profitability.

Employee Engagement Meaning & Definition 

As per Wikipedia Employee engagement means a fundamental concept in the effort to understand and describe, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the nature of the relationship between an organization and its employees.

An engaged employee is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization's reputation and interests. An engaged employee will have a positive attitude towards the organization and its values where as a disengaged employee will perform very low as the employee may not be interested in work.

The employee engagement definition describes it as a concept based on employees who have trust in an organization. Employee engagement is a two way communication and commitment between the company and the employees. Engaged employees bring success of an organization as they perform best.

Experts definition on Employee Engagement

Gallup defines employee engagement in HRM as “the involvement and enthusiasm of employees in their work and workplace. Employee engagement helps you measure and manage employees”

William Kahn defined the employee engagement in HRM meaning as: “The harnessing of organization members' selves to their work roles”

MacLeod and Clarke defined employee engagement in HRM as “A workplace approach designed to ensure that employees are committed to their organization’s goals and values, motivated to contribute to organizational success, and are able at the same time to enhance their own sense of well-being.”

John Purcell defined employee engagement in HRM as “Engagement is a combination of attitude and behaviour. The attitude is ‘commitment’, and the behaviour is ‘going the extra mile’”

Jacob Morgan an author of employee experience advantage elaborates employee engagement in HRM as “When organisations make real gains, it’s because they’re thinking longer-term. They’re going beyond what engagement scores are telling them to do in the moment and redesigning employee experience, creating a place where people want, not just need, to work each day.”

David MacLeod defines employee engagement in HRM as “Employee engagement is about how we create the conditions in which employees offer more of their capability and potential.”

Schaufeli defined Employee engagement in HRM as a “positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption”

Rich described employee engagement in HRM as engaged employees as more attentive and focused on their responsibilities than less engaged employees.

What is Modern Employee Engagement?

Modern employee engagement is a concept that takes into account the changing nature of work, workplace culture, and employee expectations. In today's workforce, where work is increasingly remote, flexible, and technology-driven, modern employee engagement requires organizations to adopt new strategies that reflect these changes.

Modern employee engagement involves creating a workplace culture that fosters open communication, transparency, and trust. Organizations need to ensure that employees have access to the information they need to perform their jobs effectively and that they feel valued and supported by their supervisors and peers. This can be achieved through regular feedback and recognition, employee development programs, and opportunities for growth and advancement.

Another key aspect of modern employee engagement is flexibility. Organizations need to recognize that employees have different needs and preferences when it comes to work arrangements. This may include offering flexible work hours, remote work options, and other benefits that help employees achieve a better work-life balance. By providing employees with the flexibility they need, organizations can improve employee satisfaction, reduce turnover, and enhance overall productivity.

In addition, modern employee engagement requires organizations to leverage technology to improve communication and collaboration. This may include tools for remote work, social media platforms, and other digital technologies that enable employees to stay connected and engaged with their colleagues.

What is Employee Engagement in HR

Employee engagement in Human Resource is a measure of how engaged and enthusiastic individuals are about their work, as well as how much extra effort they are willing to put in their work or job role. When employees are engaged in an organization they work harder and don’t plan to leave the organization.

The meaning of Employee engagement in HR can be described as that the amount of dedication an employee feels towards their job. An engaged employee is a passionate worker and are responsible for their work.

Good employee engagement can be described as creating and promoting positive behaviors and attitudes that results in positive outcomes for the company. Great employee engagement increases loyalty of the employee towards the company and employees adhere to the rules and regulations of the company.

There are four C’s of employee engagement in HR namely contribution, connection, communication and confidence. These four C’s helps employees to perform well and at the same time be satisfied from their job role.


Employee Engagement Model

The employee engagement model is a blueprint detailing how to make the employee feel valued, empowered and productive in their job role. It helps in fostering organizational culture and implementing appropriate HR policies. Few employee engagement models are:

  1. Penna’s employee engagement model

  2. H Schmidt employee engagement model

  3. Deloitte employee engagement model

  4. The Gallup employee engagement model

  5. AON-Hewitt employee engagement model

Penna’s Employee Engagement Model

This model was developed in 2007. This is a pyramid – shaped model which begins with basic working conditions. The second level is learning and development to be followed by promotion opportunities, which is followed by leadership, trust and respect. At the top of the pyramid meaning is there.

Employee engagement will increase when the organization develops each of these levels. This will also help in employee retention and increased productivity.

H Schmidt Employee Engagement Model

The Schmidt model was developed in 2004. This model places emphasis on retaining people who fits into company culture. This model propagates if the business hires right people with right experience the work environment is positive and there is business growth as employees are more engaged or committed.

Deloitte Employee Engagement Model

This model was developed by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, which is the world’s accounting firm. This model was developed by taking employee interviews at a large scale. Deloitte elements of engagement consists of five elements namely meaningful work, hands-on management, positive work environment, growth opportunity and trust in leadership

The Gallup Employee Engagement Model

Gallup model of employee engagement measures employee engagement based on few questions and answers. The model focusses on whether an employees is able to perform well taking the employees emotional and personal needs into account.

AON-Hewitt Employee Engagement Model

AON-Hewitt employee engagement model focusses on business outcomes. According to this model engaged employees affects customer satisfaction and profits. This employee engagement model unites few core elements they are job security and benefits, company practices, the work, leadership, performance and brand.

Importance of Employee Engagement

The importance of employee engagement are:

  1. Engaged employees boost the productivity in an organization. Engaged employees are 21 percent  more productive than disengaged employee as per Gallup poll

  2. Employee engagement leads to increase in customer satisfaction.

  3. Best employees can be retained through employee engagement

  4. Engaged employees improves company culture and workplace environment

  5. Engaged employees are the key to success in an organization

Employee Engagement Benefits

The employee engagement benefits are:

Increased Productivity

One of the most valuable Employee engagement benefit is that it leads to increase the productivity as employees who are engaged with their work will make extra efforts.

Reduced Employee Stress

Less engaged employees are likely to be more stressed. Employee engagement reduces the stress.

Increased Employee Commitment

Engaged employees are more committed and they will put in extra time and efforts to achieve the organizational goals.

Better Customer Service

Employee engagement is linked to improved customer satisfaction and also increase customer loyalty. Engaged employees are more aligned with the company’s mission and goals.

Lower Absenteeism

Absenteeism will reduce company’s turnover and productivity. Engaged employees are less likely to be absent.

Injury Management

Workplace injury is a big loss to the organization. Engaged employees will pay more attention to their work and will feel free to speak up their concerns.

Increase in Sales

Engaged employees are more productive and are hence more likely to build strong customer relationships.


Thus, employee engagement is a very important and beneficial for all the business organization. The companies should follow such procedure or rules so that employee engagement can be increased. Employee engagement increases motivation and the employee’s commitment towards their job.

Overall, modern employee engagement requires organizations to be proactive in their approach to employee engagement, recognizing that the traditional approaches may no longer be sufficient in today's rapidly changing workplace. By adopting new strategies and leveraging technology, organizations can create a workplace culture that fosters engagement, productivity, and innovation.