Job Analysis in HRM is a systematic exploration of a job, which not only helps to make a detailed description of the particular job but also helps to support other management activities such as performance appraisal, training and development, job rotation, entry and exit process, retention process, enrichment and enlargement process and many more. As the job analysis supports different management activities so a solid ground of preparation is required. Job analysis is the base of organizational foundation.
To develop a correct job specification and proper job description based on various data and studies available, company requires the help of some well known Job Analysis tools and techniques. The HR departments of various companies have been using these kinds of tools and technique, which are basically designed to create a systematic approach towards the organization which also proved extremely beneficial for some of the organization. There are various Job analysis tools and techniques are available and few of them are listed below:
Various job analysis tools and techniques are PAQ model, O* net model, F-JAS model, FJA model, job scan model, competency model
PAQ Model - Position Analysis Questionnaire
PAQ model is known as Position analysis questionnaire is a job analysis questionnaire and a technique that evaluates job skill level and basic characteristics of the applicants. This method involves a series of detailed questioning the employees or the expert we are hiring and to evaluate them on the basis of these questionnaires and analysis the final reports. The questionnaires are designed and evaluated by the Experience job analyst and subject matter experts. The PAQ Model is largely based of Worker-oriented Method and it focus area is to analyze the employee or the worker behavior at their work. This Position Analysis Questionnaire is filled by job incumbents and their superiors and one can use this PAQ Model Tools and techniques at all types of job across levels.
O*Net Model - Occupational Information Network
The occupational information network (O*Net Model) is a job analysis tool helpful to managers. The model helps in listing job related data for various jobs at a time thus saving time. This job analysis tool enables collection of various data of the employee related to job opening. This model was developed using research on job and organizational analysis. This model also allows occupational information to be applied across jobs, sectors or industries. These descriptors are organized into six major domains, which enable the user to focus on areas of information that specify the key attributes and characteristics of workers and occupations.
F- JAS model - Fleishman Job Analysis System
F-JAS display is Fleishman Job Analysis System represents a worker oriented approach. This factor analyzed large data sets to discover a common minimum set of knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics across different jobs. The F-JAS model technique measures three areas cognitive, psychomotor, and physical, endurance, flexibility, balance and coordination.
This model tool is specially adapted for German speakers. This model contains five sections namely cognition, psychomotor, physical characteristics, sensory skills, social interpersonal skills, and competencies. The F-JAs model can be used to to describe individual activities and to compare entire areas of activity. The F-JAS model can be used to establish a skills profile for a job as a whole.
FJA Model - Functional Job Analysis
FJA Model is Functional Job Analysis Tool and Technique developed by the employment and training administration of the US department of labor. FJA produces occupational information specific to the performance of the work and the performer. Recent version of FJA uses seven scales to describe what workers do in job namely things, data, people, worker instructions, reasoning math and language. FJA model tools leads to better employee understanding. FJA model is harder to standardize the analysis across an organization due to emphasis on qualitative rather than quantitative methods.
Job Scan Model
The job scan model suggests ideal job model focusing on personality dynamics. This model does not look into the internal competencies of the individual which is required to perform a specific job such as experience, intellect, physical and emotional characteristics.
Competency model is a job analysis tool, which looks in to the competencies of employees related to performance of tasks, behaviors, expertise, abilities, skills and knowledge. It is a collection of competencies that defines successful job performance. This job analysis tool also gathers the basic information as per job requirement and job designation (JD) such as certification, training, education, qualification, experience, license, legal records. IT is framework for defining the skill and knowledge requirements of a job. It is a collection of competencies that jointly define successful job performance. These models are widely used in business for defining and assessing competencies within organizations in both hard and soft skills.
HR Department of each company can choose job analysis tool as per their job position and depending on the needs and objectives of job analysis.