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"Training and development methods refer to the way a job is being performed or the technique used to enhance the skills and knowledge of an employee."
Every organization provides relevant training methods to improve the skills and knowledge of the employees. It is generally the function of HRM department or the training manager to see the necessary skills up-gradation required and arrange the appropriate training program for the employees. As employees are the valuable assets for the organization it is vital that they should be trained enough and in a proper manner.
Training and development methods
In an organization its employees are the most valuable asset as they play the primary and important role in the growth of any business. The management always pays high attention and asks their HRM Department to ensure that their employees are well trained and are equipped with the required skills and knowledge so that the business goal can be achieved accordingly.
In fact, there are a various methods tools and techniques which are being used by Training and Development Department for employees’ career progression and to improve their work quality and speed to perform on job. However, Developing Skill and knowledge is continues Educational process which help employee to learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge to improve their skills and overall personality.
The biggest challenge is to choose the right training methods and techniques keeping in mind the size of the organization, nature of job and types of workers and most importantly the method prove to be cost-effective as well which can tender the best results.
A comprehensive list of different Training and Development Methods are listed below which are being used. Traditional and Modern ways of Training methods which includes on the job and off the job training methods is detailed in the preceding of this article.
List of Training Methods:
Training Methods in HRM?
The human resource department is responsible for the choice and selection of training methods used for entire organization. The strategy of HRM department shapes the framework of training methods within the organization. There are many options of training methods available hence it is important to conduct Training needs Analysis to select the suitable training method in a careful manner. The training methods in HRM are selected based on following three components
- Purpose of the Training Program- The HRM department first define the objective of the training program. Based on the objective and purpose of the training program the suitable training method is identified. HRM department has categorized the training programs based on the purpose as Quality Training, Professional Training, Soft Skills Training, Managerial Training, Legal Training, Safety Training, Team Training, Technical Training and Work Skills Training. Now, as one can understand that a computer based training method is more suitable for technical training as compared to case study method. In a similar way once the purpose of the training is clarified it becomes easy for the HRM department to decide the training method to be used to train the employees.
- The Intended Audience- The demographics of employees, nature of their job, level of job and available time period are the factors which are considered by HRM department for selection of the appropriate training method.
- Constraints- Training is not a free affair. Thus, HRM department has to consider the investment of money, time and resources while deciding the training method for the organization. The training budget plays important role in the decision of training methods for the employee training in the organization.
Training Methods Need - The training methods acts as a guideline to design the training program for the employees. Once the training method is decided the HRM department can take decisions about the investment of resources and fix up a time scheduled for the training program. It training methods are required to structure the training program properly and evaluate the after effect of the training on the skill improvement of the employees.
Training Methods Importance - Training methods are the basic outline of the training program. The importance of training methods includes-
- It is vital to choose the right training method as it affects the outcome of training program
- The selection of training methods affects the budget and resource investment of the organization.
- The right training method can lead to improvement in skill and knowledge of the employee.
- Appropriate training methods act as a motivating tool to improve job satisfaction of the employee.
- The training method is a core part of the training program which aligns the training program with the objective of the organization.
Uses of Training Methods
- The training methods are used to design the appropriate training program for the organization.
- As the training methods are decided based on the objective of the training program, the HRM department often uses training methods to address the weakness of the employees.
- The training methods are used to improve the employee satisfaction and morale
- The innovative training methods are also used to enhance the image of organization in the market as a better employer.
As there is no single method to deliver training, trainers continue to search for the best method to present targeted information to trainees. With the ever-changing technological advances of our time and the continual development of learning theories, there are now more options than ever before in how we train.
Types of Training Methods?
Over a period of time the training methods have changed a lot. Based on the requirement of the company, now training methods can be selected from variety of options. A lot of companies implement different training methods for various team, departments and groups of employees. It is important in Training and Development Process to select the training methods as per the needs and desired outcome from the training program. Training methods are categorized as traditional and modern methods.
Traditional Training Methods
Traditional training methods are commonly used in ample amount of companies. They are simple to implement and requires less tools. Here are three primary types of traditional training methods:
Off the Job Training Methods - On the Job Training Methods - Interactive Training Methods
- Off the job Training
Classroom learning is a way of off-the-job training. Here groups of employees go through different presentations, activities, case study assessments to learn more about their job. The information about vision and mission of the company and the company policy is also conveyed to the employees during off-the-job training. This type of training provides rich learning opportunity to the employees, however due to cost issues many companies avoid arrangement of such training programs.
2. On-The-Job Training
During on-the-job training the employees are involved in the real work activities and learn through experience. It provides rapid learning experience and improves bonding among team members. However some employees find this method of training very stressful and fall to learn or fall to perform on the job.
3. Interactive Training
The interactive training ensures that employees are actively involved in the learning process. The training includes simulation, scenarios, games and quizzes. In order to practice a new skill the employee get a realistic work scenarios and thus employee can apply their knowledge before actually working on the real job. The method is quite time consuming and the employee’s needs constant feedback from the trainer to move further in the training program.
Modern Training Methods
After globalization now technology is key to every process. Thus, the modern training methods include online and computer based training. Another need of training is on the social front, as in the company now people from different backgrounds, cultures work together it is important to develop the social skills and team work among the employees.
Social Learning Methods - Online Training Methods - Outdoor Training Methods
1. Social Learning
Social learning methods are a process in which employees learn through observation, imitation and modeling their behavior. It is a effective training method for overall development of the employee, it enhance the problem solving skills and employees acquire empathy about their team members.
2. Online Training
If you want to training large number of employees in an effective manner, then online training is an answer for you. Online workplace training includes eLearning courses, videos, webinars which present information in front of employees and also test their acquired skills. Basic PC-based programs, Interactive multimedia training and web-based training programs are different types of online training.
3. Outdoor Training
Many large companies are now using outdoor training as a tool to improve teamwork skills among their employees. It is termed as a break from work and classroom learning. The training includes adventure like group of employees can live outdoors and engage in activities such as mountain climbing or whitewater rafting. The training is a social activity in which employees get to know each other.
On The Job Training Methods
For the training of non-managerial level of employees most of the organizations use on the job training methods. As compared to classroom training the on the job training is quite easy to execute as employee will be available in the actual work environment. On the job training is used when organization wants the employee to be productive immediately after joining the job. The core of on the job training is development through job performance. It provides opportunity to new employee to build good relationship with their working team while learning in the early days.
Different types of On-the-job training methods are as given below:
1. Job rotation: Job rotation involves regular movement of employee from one job profile to another in order to gain experience and knowledge. This method is useful to improve employees skill set and provide them overview of overall organizational working pattern. It also improves the relationship between employees working in different departments of the organization.
2. Coaching: This method includes assignment of mentor or supervisor to each employee who will train the employee, resolve their work related issues and provide feedback on their performance.
3. Job instructions: It is a systematic training in which the instructor explains each step of doing job to the employee, let them perform and correct them in the case of mistake.
4. Committee assignments: A group of employees are given a work related issue which they should solve by healthy discussion with each other. It is also a way to improve team work among employees.
5. Internship training: Generally theoretical and practical training is provided to the students of various colleges before they actually start their actual career in corporate world. Most of the time after completions of internship the company offers the student to join them as a employee.
Advantages of On-the-Job Training
- It is a flexible way to train the employees.
- It is less expensive as compared to other training methods.
- It motivates and encourages the employee to learn and perform at work.
- Not much additional arrangement required to conduct the training of the employee.
Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training
- The on-the-job training is not properly structured and the training environment is not created.
- It is difficult for employees to learn when the managers providing on-the-job training lack in training skills.
- As training and work both is going on hand in hand the performance criteria is not clearly defined.
Off the Job Training Methods
The development activity implemented by the organization which is away from the work field is called as off-the-job training. There are several off-the-job training methods which can be used to train employees. In this type of training the employees can fully concentrate on learn as there will be no work pressure.
Different types of Off-the-job training methods are given below:
1. Case study method: To impart critical and analytic thinking among employees a business problem is assigned to the employees. The employees can analyze the entire case and provide various possible solutions on the given situation.
2. Incident method: A real situation is created in the term of incident and the group of employees is asked to make a decision on the given issue. The group discussion is a way to take a decision on the real-life situation.
3. Role play: In a simulated situation the employees are asked to assume that they are playing role of an individual present in a problem. According to the assigned role the different participants interacts and try to resolve the problem.
4. In-basket method: An imaginary company is created and all the information about the activities, products and employees is provided to the trainee. Now trainee has to delegate tasks and prepare schedules for this imaginary company. This task helps to develop situational judgments among employees.
5. Business games: Here group of employees are asked to discuss the activities and functions of an imaginary organization. It helps to improve decision making and team work among employees.
6. Grid training: It is a kind of phased training program which last for 6 years. It includes development, implementation and evaluation of various training aspects.
7. Lectures: For large number of employees attending the training, lecture method is very useful. An expert explains various job related concepts and principles to the employees through face to face lectures.
8. Simulation: An imaginary situation act as a simulator to the employee and they have to take immediate action on the situation. It helps in development of strategic way of thinking on different aspect of organization.
9. Management education: Companies collaborate with various bachelors and postgraduate institutes which provide high education to the employees.
10. Conferences: A conference acts as a place where people working in the same field meet up and shares their unique ideas with each other. It is a best way to know about the latest updates in the industry.
Advantages of Off-the-Job Training
- The normal operation of organization remains undisturbed
- Trainers who provide training are well qualified and experienced.
- The training program is properly drafted and well organized.
Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training
- The training is artificial in nature and not directly in context to the work.
- It is quite expensive to implement
- The work hours of the employees is lost which can lead to lost productivity of the organization.
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